Desalination Plants In India
China General Nuclear Power (CGN) has commissioned its first nuclear power plant in Tamil Nadu, which uses waste heat to provide cooling water. The 200 MWt NHR-200 reactor is used to produce nuclear fuel for the next generation of power plants in India. It will be built in Chennai and will produce between 80 and 160,000 m3, with a capacity of up to 1,500 MW and an output of 500 MW per year.
The water for the desalination plant is provided by the Indian Water Resources Development Corporation (IWRDC), a subsidiary of the Tamil Nadu State Government. The plant uses its own low temperature desalination (LTTD) technology, an environmentally friendly technology, while the existing desalination plants in Nemmeli and Minjur use reverse osmosis (RO) technology to separate fresh water from seawater. Both are on land, in desalination plants that will abandon the traditional method of separating fresh and seawater by using hydrothermal water treatment.
BHEL’s Ranipet plant currently has a capacity of 1.5 million cubic meters of water per day, and GE Water Process Technologies provided Tata Chemicals with the water for the desalination plant and its hydrothermal water treatment plant.
On average, the construction of a 100 MLD plant costs about Rsc 900, as Chennai’s experience has shown. For example, the 100 million cubic meters desalination plant Essel Infraprojects intends to build in Gujarat is expected to cost twice as much as 700 million rand. The plant is to be built at a cost of about 1.5 billion rupees per year, or about 1,000 MW. According to the Indian Institute of Water Resources (IEWR) in Chennai, it will cost an average of 900 crore, with an average annual cost per unit of 2,500 MW and a maximum capacity of 1 million cubic meters per day.
Consider that Tamil Nadu has built plants in Nemmelli and Minjur and a 400 MLD plant is planned in Perur (a third Desal is added, another 150 MLD). In addition to the MinJur plant, a desalination plant with a capacity of 100 million litres will be built in Nemmeli, which is expected to go into operation in September 2012.
If it is India’s largest desalination plant, which is being built on the basis of design – build – operate, the recognition of this project is of global importance. The largest desalination plants in the country are located in Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat.
Eskom is working with the authorities in Cape Town to build a plant that will exclusively produce water from the plant. The desalination plant would produce between 2,500 and 5,000 m3 and was contracted for Phase 2 until 2024, making it the largest plant in South Africa with a capacity of 1.5 million litres per day.
The desalination plant, which will be operated with a combination of hydropower and nuclear power from India and South Africa, is due to be completed in 2018, while the tender for the construction of a second phase of the plant with a capacity of 2,500 and 5,000 m3 is ongoing. The desalination plant in India, a partnership between India’s National Renewable Energy Corporation (NREL) and South Africa’s Eskom, is also due to go into operation in 2019, despite the fact that the tender process has been in several phases and will produce an additional 1.5 million litres per day.
It is the largest nuclear desalination plant based on a hybrid technology that uses a combination of hydropower and nuclear power from India and South Africa and treats seawater and reservoir water. The plant is operated by a special purpose company called Jodiya Water Desalinations Limited, which can treat 100 million litres of seawater daily. Keppel, which is being built in partnership with the South African National Renewable Energy Corporation (NREL) and Eskom, has planned and built the first phase of the 1,500 megawatt (m3) plant.
Tamil Nadu, an early adopter of this ambitious technology, currently has two functioning desalination plants that drain enough water to quench the thirst of its capital. This year’s water crisis in Chennai has led the government to build two desalination plants between 2010 and 2013. Israel is the driest country in the world and this desalination plant meets its water needs.